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Twenty-Fourth Session. 

November 27, 1922. 
Chairmen: Comrade Neurath. 

Ecp0 ,t on Con imu n,s, Activity among Won*, Adoption of R esokt5on on ^ ^^ < ^ 
Speakers- Zetkin. Sturm, Smidovitsh, Kasparov, 

Session opened 12.40 P. M. 

Chairman: Neurat h :— The Session 
is open. The next question before the 
egress is Communist activity among 
women. Comrade Zetkin has the floor as 
H rs t speaker. (Applause). 

Clara Zetkin: Comrades, before I 
uegin my 'report on the activities of the 
International Women's Secretariat and 
the development of Communist activity 
among the women, allow me a few short 
remarks. They may seem unnecessary, 
lor they only repeat much that has been 
said and decided before; nevertheless 
they are necessary because our work is 
still misunderstood not only by our 
opponents but even by our own comrades 
They misunderstand the work of the 
Communist among the women and the 
asks of the national sections and of the 
international in this connection. This is 
I «T e i he remains of an old view, 
1 V tl \ ers lt is willM Prejudice 
taause they do not sympathise with our 
m, and even partly oppose it. 

'international Woniens Secretariat 
perXr man y. believe the union of inde- 

Knt^T ati0 J? s of the women ' s 
Pre of t,' b n a branch °* ^ Exe- 
IjtivUv iini \ omilltern - li conducts the 
^h tl 1 ff Iy ln con stant co-operation 
iate 1 E 5 ecu 1 tiv ^ but under its 
m leadership. What we usually 

movemen i n ,?°l an md T ndent wome *'s 
movement and has nothing to do with 

mteSStJp tendenciRS - * exists or 
the w ,m ' ^ommumst propaganda among 
SLf en ' This has a double purpose: 

sections or the Comintern those women 

mini"/ 6 •H alr , eady 1 fliled Wi& the CZ 
munibt ideal, making them conscious 

coworkers in the activity of those 

sections. Second, to win Lr to the 

Communist ideals the indifferent women 

and draw them into the struggles of 

the proletariat. The masses of working 

women should be mobilised for these 

lights, there is no work in the Party 

no struggle of the movement in any 

country in which we women do not 

ragard it as our first duty to participate. 

Moreover, we have the ambition to take 

our place in the Communist Parties and 

the International where the work is 

hardest and the bullets fly thickest, 

without shunning the most menial, most 

modest every-day work. 

One thing has become apparent: we 

require special organs to carry on the 

Communist work of organisation and 

education among women and to make it 

a part of the life of the Party. The 

Communist agitation among the women 

is not only a woman's task, it is a task 


of the whole Communist Party of each 
country, of the Communist International 
To accomplish our purpose it is necessary 
to set party organs as Women's Secre- 
tariats, womens Departments, or what- 
ever we may call them, to carry on this 

01'' 'I lll^; COMMUNIST 

exclude any man jy om , . 
fcMs special Communist worl 11{? Part , 
women. This applies to k aWiM 
our publications l* we] T *3?fl 
vity as a whole. WU1 as to ou ? Mi 

During the last year w , 
evidence of the ff0 oH «».» , . h av« 

. t he proletariat of other countries 
P»A n „re still suffering under the capi. 
Ferule- This is why the report el 
§P* J e gwidovitch on the activity f 

orccun.0. we do not deny the possi- oZmunist wo^am^ 1 ?! ^ fi^ 

bili.v that some strong personality, man have seen the good ddS.? 6 *^? *I 

or woman, might be able to do the same ries where the CommmXt"! those taS 

work m some local or district, organisation. International have Sea tri eetioils of 51 

But however much we may admit such bodies, as in Bulgaria 2 o SU ° h s epar? 

individual accomplishments in the Party, the women's Secretariats hS m ^ »K 1 

we must ask ourselves how much greater the work of organisa-im, J e , ca ^iedl 

the benefits for Communist would have the women Communis <f 1{ fida ' 

been if instead of the work of a working women and led +h %' 

single personality, we would have the social struggle. In those contr lnt 




"%°fliens Department of the Com 
lie ^ -party oi Russia is 


i<j now, comrades, lot me .give you a 

' Samples oi the bad effect of the 

P n f special organs for work among 

' acIc « m Communist Parties. Whenever 

co-operation of many forces. This is why munist Women's movemeni M?' tlleC % 
the co-operation of many towards a one of the strong points of n becotl ie 
common goal must be our slogan in the life of the Party. le general 
Party, in the International, aud in our In those countres we have ma 
work amongst the women. As a matter members and militants in the p^f 01 ^ 
of expediency, of practical division of still larger masses of women as e ^ 
labour, women are usually the best- in arms outside the Party ^i-.- - lra( ' fis 
fitted to take parts in the special organs true for the counry which for its ' S a ' S0 
for Communist work among women. The tance should be mentioned first— <? P ' r " 
reason for this is very apparent. We Russia. In Soviet Russia, the Worn''' 
cannot escape the fact that the large Department of the Communist Fvf S 
masses of the women live and work acting with and under the leadership if 
to-day under special social conditions, the Party, have proved how important 
We cannot escape the fact that the the co-operation of the women is, espe- ' 
special position of women in society has cially in this difficult period of economic 
also created a special feminine psycho- and social transition to Communist, But 
logy. The natural characteristics and the what is most important is what our 
products of social environment must women comrades have done through their 
affect the woman's outlook, which we women's department and with the help of 
must take into account just as we must the Party in order to bring about the co- 
take into account the special psychology operation of the large masses of women 
of the small peasant masses, resulting from workers and preasants for the creation 
their conditions of living. This is of new- conditions in all fields of industry 
why, in general — I repeat, in general— and social life, as for instance in combat- 
women usually find the best and quickest ting unemployment and the shortage oi 
method of approah to the working woman food, problems resulting from the revo- 
to begin Communist propaganda. This is lution under the given historical circunt 
why also the women are able to find the stances. They have also mobilised \W 
best methods and forms of agitation women to transform society from U| 
among the exploited women. Of course, talism to Communism. _ What the spec 
this is true only in a general way. Just organs of the Communist Party otjaiwg 
as we Communist women consider it as for work among women have done 4 

our right and duty to take part in every are doingin this connection is or me f .^ 
activity in theParty, -from the most modest est importance. Soyie Ri ssm is n rf 
work of distributing leaflets to the final, type of this gigun t t fnsioinwu 

en i Q C( 

ar e no vvuiiiriio wc uie ban ais or 

bodies, we have observed a fal- 

Women's Secretariats 


s nU in the participation of women in 
Pijfe of the Communist Party and the 
Krawal of the feminine proletariat 

the struggle of their class. In Poland, 
r0 unrty has refused until now to set 

j Part,, 
special bodies 

or work among women. 

h P Party was content to allow women 
L fidit in its ranks, and participate in 
I T/es and mass movements. However, 
t are beginning to realise that this is 
Jot sufficient to permeate the feminine 
proletariat with the Communist ideal. I 
Le that a Women's Secretariat will 
300 i, be created in Poland as a prelimi- 
nary measure to a methodical agitation 
irjll0 i)g the large masses of the working 
women- Then will the working women 
^Poland, where the Communist Party 
(P flas such a glorious tradition of 
struggle, play a greater role in the 
movement than now. The last, elections 
to the Diet have proven that the reaction 
pods its strongest support among the 
ignorant masses of women who have not 
nt been permeated by Communism. This 
should never happen again. 

In England organisation for conducting 
systematic agitation among the feminine 
proletariat are altogether lacking. The 
Nmunist Party of England excused 
m by its weakness and has continually 
Pwd or has postponed the setting up 
|f special body for systematic agitation 
J the women. All tire exhortations 
IJ" Rational Women's Secretariat 
iftSV^ 1 ?' No Women's Secreta- 
4;^ e^bhshed; the only thing that 
*Bpnn,.ni i> ^/PPomt a woman comrade 
' '■"■"' agitator. Our women 

Communist International, so do we not wi 

pes lu 


ie no itl,i 8 ? 1SP , d vanous stings 

It Zml education of the Com- 

tl ^men and their closer connection 

' ai> ty out of ih, 

ir own feeble 

similar educationli * e .jfkMishmeat of 
encQnraged b v thp p^^ttons must be 
attili„i f r oJ the K^° f, V- I,uri,st J ' {ir1 -V- The 
m ^tet Party of oSfflSf ^ "" Com ' 
opinion, not/on v , , ' m ls ' in rn -y 
eial weakness but r ° t c °r ol ' i,s « Dan - 

I do not want to S "T {? n 8 from it- 
severe c. this, I mi the Part ? to a 

as well as !u mi . ' or ^ an isationally 
tliro 4!^nrf 1C f ly and u > develop 
mas Dar tv d i WOl ' k lnto a ^olutlonar? 
CommS' Part "»V? Briti ^ 
ehotion in Gre ,7 vX h ° • last ? eneral 

organisation which were decided upon 

J 1 ?, 1 ^ at a , tlme when Irom being 
a small propagandist party, it goes right 
mto the masses, to strive to orLnise the 
proletarian women. The BritishsecUon I 
tlie International cannot remain indiffe- 
rent to the fact that in its country many 
millions of proletarian women are orga- 
nised m womens' suffrage societies in 
women s trade unions of the old type in 
consumers' co-operatives, in the Labour 
tarty and in the Independent Labour 
i arty. It behoves the Communist Party 
to engage in a struggle with all these 
organisations for capturing the minds the 
heart, the will power and the actions of 
the proletarian women. Therefore, it will 
in the long run realise the necessity for 
the organisation of special organs by 
means of which it will be able to organise, 
and train, the communist women within 
the Party and to make the proletarian 
women outside the Party willing fighters 
for the interests of their class," The 
International Women's Secretariat will 
naturally assist the Party in this work- 
as the representative and the auxiliary 
organ of the Executive. 

There are similar conditions in Pri 
which must be mentioned here. In France, 
the Marseilles Congress did a great desk) 
towards the establishment of a revolu- 
tionary, proletarian women's movement. 
For the first time in Pranse, the revolV 

v forces among Lhe women were 
mised and united within the Com- 
\ . The Congress, and the 
Communist Women's Conference in 
Marseilles decided on the inclusion of 
commnntstically minded women in the 
I'ai-iv. the establishment of active organs 
ol" (he communist women's movement in 
le form of a Women's Secretariat 
attached to the Central organ of the 
Party and on the publication of a women's 
paper. Unfortunately the Paris Congress 
has destroyed this good beginning, let 
US hope not for long. Owing to the 
Party crisis and its consequences, the 
Managing Committee of the Party has 
decided to dissolve the Momen's Secreta- 
riat and to stop the publication of the 
women's paper the "Ouviere," We are 
convinced that just as the crisis within 
the French Party must be overcome, so 
also must the question of the formation 
of various organs of the Party find a 
satisfastory solution. An active Commun- 
ist Party, fully conscious of its aims 
must have an organ through which it 
can reach the masses of the proletarian 
women and to make them fellow workers 
in all the struggles of our International. 
During the last year the inclusion of the 
women "communists into the Party and 
the formation of the necessary special 
organ to bring the wide masses of the 
female proletariat and of all the exploited 
women under the influence of communist 
thought and to lead them in the prole- 
tarian struggle, has taken place in Italy 
without any great difficulties. Comrade 
Hertha Sturm will give you more detailed 
information on all these questions. She 
ill tell you about the national and 
nternationil bodies which we must have 
in order to make the communist and 
the proletarian women active forces in 
the class struggle, in the revolutionary 
movement of the exploited and oppressed 

With the assistance of the International 
Women's Secretariat, it was possible to 
dissolve the special women's organisations 
which existed in Holland. In addition to 
communist women, it also comprised 
anarchist elements, and elements which 
ere coquetting with anarchism. The 
.. mnranist members of this organisation 
were enlisted in the ranks of the Dutch. 
Communist Party in which they work 


together with the men cor 

shown by experience that ?w Sl ft', 

of the Communist women i„l "Hki H 
and their systematic ™l al **M fe 
propaganda work have be™ ° n * tf 
with complete success. at( *ldi' 

In Norway the inclusion of ih 
communists into the Communist t^el 
not as yet as complete as the an S' i ' 
and directives of the Commnnii^PlS 
tional demand. This is a", T ni , st V 

ofj'mk cgmmm international 

without destroying the old. 
W$ Entries too, capitalism holds r,? r Vl '• I i- 
£ these cot br0U ght large masses of ' f ,' [a k°™ " r - ™ '-',,in. 

U " ■ to Us service. Such is the caS in X n \l\' . '' i " h ** 

io$ e0 I m India, in Trans Caucasia, and 
jn JaP a Q n ma. H has not destroyed the 
pD iD . | pn slavement of women how- 
aid socia ^^ only adapted it l0 its own 

uonai aemanu. This is due +7 ^'i 
neral character of Party life i n \¥ e ge- 
Separate women s organisation ■ W *I 
outcome of the organisational \ ls «i 
of the Norwegian Communist r^ 
Party, which still calls tiself tL c^ 
Democratic Party. It i s baseci fe0( % 
individual membership, but onth to!t 
iation of trade unions. It is to be p ^i 
that with the re-organisation a vP? C ^ 
of separate women's organisations 2 
disappear and that organisational 1 ll! 
will be found which will Xw nf* 
extensive use of the services an It? 
collaboration of the communistic.? 
inclined women. 

The same, minus the party crisis ami 
subsequent general reorganisation ma 
be said of the Swedish section 'of tiji 
Communist International. Here too, mi 
have separate communist women orgac 
sations. Moreover, in Norway and SwedeL 
these separate organisations are relics of 
the old and strong womon's suffrage 
movement. They will disappear when the 
ideological relics of the social-demo 
cratic past will have been overcome, 
and the communist orientation will have 
firmly established itself. 

I should like to deal now with k 
influence of our communist work on the 
masses of the exploited working women. 
I should like to make the principle feature 
of my report, a fact which has a fat 
reaching historic significance. Itistte 
fact of the awakening of the oppreq 
and exploited women of the Near an 
Far East who are beginning to i 
around the communist banner. Com « 
this is a fact to which we cannot i m 
too much importance. How do n | 
stand there? It is not a matte i ol em^ 
tening and winning over masses 
king "women whose century - ohl OT 
dices have been partly ^y* »J 
by a prolonged and nf™™W 
development, which does not crea 

If 7, ^guts. In the countries of the East 
r e 4 u ' men still live and work under 
tlie * u a \ pre-capitalist form of social 

l tn froaning vmder a 8 pAm g prejudices 
life. ^ cia ] and religious customs and 


Nevertheless, the women 

restriC to° awaken, to adopt the communist 
W$_™ to rebel and to talk about libe- 

Wtl»+ r~\n&e this mpan'] Th^t nr*™ 

iie ? J 8 What does this mean? That capi- 
IE' is using its last reserves— the 
tries of pre-capitalist culture or of 
? our Lniete, young capitalbt development, 
lntries which are subject to the colonial 
fmination of capitalist States or which 
Veted by the capitalist predatory 
"nstincts as future colonial possessions. 

paratively easy possibilities for exploita 

in Iation of capitalist _ States or which 
re coy 

Ijpse territories with their-rich and com- 
0'iratively easy possibilities for exploita- 
tion provided the bourgeoisie with the 
means to throw to the rebellious workers 
and wage slaves in the old capitalist 
ftuntries sops in the shape of small 
Concessions and reforms at the expense 
if the native masses who were exploited 
in the most brutal and abominable fashion. 
If the aspiration for freedom and the 
hatred against capitalism and its domi- 
nation awakens in those countries if the 
oppressed of the oppressed — the women, 
rise, if they rally to the banner of com- 
munism, it is a sign that capitalism is 
making gigantic strides towards it down- 
fall. Therefore, special importance attaches 
'o what comrade Kasparova has told us 
gont the activity of the International 
Somen's Secretariat of the Executive in 
! East. The fact that in those countries 
He women rally in ever growiog numbers 
found the banner of communism as the 
m saviour from exploitation and servi- 
ce is a sad portent; for capitalism. In 
™ countries, and especially in the 
J"in countries we are told that it is 

«oKir,™ c *? rry ° n any revolutionary 
£/ n ° n S the women owing to the 
lj|( > r inlluenre of the Church and of 

AH effrnt S0 + Clal and famiJ y triditions. 
It of t • , brin S tbe women masses 
1 l neir homes and to make them 

n ih<- i ' "' ' ! M;: "" 

'v nmant, but to refe .. Vl - 

ti ' r i>U ' ,u ? f hi8tor y. i!l order to 
The | 'J- "7 " n,i 0X11 or pUu,, 

DOwe fn! c'f C , lrCU ™*ances are &*** 

eln n ° Ur kn °wledge and our will 
can influence and alter them. If we did 
not nave this conviction, we would not 
lAV™^ or revolutionary tig&tei 
^hatdicl Marx use as the starting ptS 
ot his conception of history, in his dis- 
cussion with Feuerbaeh? He said, "The 
philosophers have all interpreted the world 
aitterently; we do not want to 
^, we wish to alter it." When it has been 
possible, through the influence radiated 
from the Soviet Republic of the Caucasus 
trough Persia and Turkey, to inspire 
the women of these nations with the 
will to work as communists for their 
emancipation, we cannot then say that 
the difficulties of communist work amono- 
women in the Latin countries are ins 
mountable. No, where there's a will, 
there's a way. We have the will to world 
revolution, therefore we must find the 
way to reach the masses of the exploited 
and enslaved women, whether the histo- 
rical conditions make it easy or diffi- 

In the capitalist countries and also in 
Soviet Russia and other Soviet republics, 
the winning over of large numbers of 
women for agitation and propaganda — 
has made great progress. Wherever the 
proletariat had taken up the struggle 
against the capitalist general offensive; 
wherever the masses have risen against 
the high cost of living, heavy taxation, 
the increase in the hours of labour - in 
short, the general deterioration of the 
proletarian standard of living; wherever 
the proletariat has risen against the 
attempts of the capitalists to burden the 
masses with the costs of the war and 
economic reconstruction; women have 
taken part in this struggle in large 
masses and with great energy. We can 
observe everywhere an increase in the 
number of women who have taken part 
in the work of the Communist Inter- 
national and its various sections. When 
they were called in the name of the 


Oo.mmun.f International, they responded 
Jlns has been shown especially that (his 
was no special work f th e women, but 
Mas a (ask ol the party as a whole 

ffi^bytheneeds%f y theCoUS 

feti tele against capitalism, of the struggle 
O toe millions of the oppressed and ex- 
ploited to form themselves into an army 
armed and prepared. 

In nearly all places, some more and 
some less, the Women's Day was carried 
through as a collective act of the whole 
Communist Party. 

< The same was true of the other great 
international work in which we took 
part; the International Workers' Famine 
Relief oi* Soviet Russia. In all countries 
this was carried on with the aid of con- 
spicuous initiative and cooperation of the 
women. From Norway and Finland to 
Switzerland and Italy, from West to Bast, 
it was the women who, together with 
their Communist Parties, have been the 
most active propagandists, collectors, and 
organisers for the International Workers' 
Famine Relief. They have shown in this 
work real proletarian solidarity. 

One thing must be emphasised, both in 
the case of the International Women's Day 
and that of the International Workers' 
Relief. In both cases there was a definite 
political activity and political aim. On 
International Women's Day, we made 
special reference to the particular needs 
and demands of the working class women 
in their positions of housewives and mo- 
thers. In the case of the famine aid for 
Soviet Russia, w r e emphasised the appeal 
to working class solidarity. But in both 
cases we sought to awaken the masses 
of the women to political thought and 
political activity. Both the demands of 
the women for the protection of mothers 
and infants, and also the acts of soli- 
darity with Soviet Russia, were transferred 
to the field of political action and poli- 
tical struggle. This is the main object 
of Communist work among women. The 
economic and social suffering of women 
and their demand for a civilised existence, 
are used as a means to lead them into 
the most strenuous struggle with bour- 
geois society. 

In the various countries, the communist 
women, under the leadership of their 
party, have used every opportunity to 
awaken the proletarian women and to 

lead them into the S (n„ 
capitalist system. Such S B >W* 
instance in Germany in } * 8 .he , "' 
the so-called Abortion I " fl Kht £$ 


unist used for _ a far-reach 


iul campaign against boiL-^ s «c> 
and bourgeois State. Tlik ?,° ls C CN 
red for us the sympathy* JS^J 
of large masses of women ?, a < ' 
presented, not as a womenV * as a f 
as a political question of tll qUes % 
, All of our campaigns ^ »tl 
been carried on from* the pit °^ ! 4 
of the proletarian United P j&° M 
light oi the instructions which u ! ln * 
Congress of the Communist Int le ^ 

0-fl.VP. US' "Tn + V,« ~-__ 7 1Ul ' 

.„,,,,!». Comrades, we. must take; 
fl*on tft jL ( . of the ferment in Woolens' 
P^° ft order to fan their resigned hdp€ 

irl to a tlame 


$?* |,>r : ' higher ultimate aim. Our Bui- 
-' '"'" women comrades have established 
"i on . 8ot sympathising women. The eUni- 

feffwiU lead to revolutionary consci- ] • , ,.. " h Potatory training cent* 
* b,c,1 e « and action. Our work, Common- l ' n V'' lhe Communtot Party, b 

also effect We organisational rail yin*Doifl 

light ol the instructions which ft ln 
Congress of the Communist lit}* K 
gave us: "To the masses'" S^K 
recognised fully the necessity 3* A 
ted Front, we realise the imni ^i 
spirited and thorough work in V h tanoe «l 
co-operatives. In order to carrv n ? n ^ 
getic and systematic work in tW?' 
lields it is necessary that we aa in\l 
ence over large sections of woi \ 
recruit them for the struggle S m 
shall do by influencing wor|L 21 
through their trade unions, anf ff 
nan andpetty bourgeois housewives Sir i 
the co-operative movement. 

The conditions are especially favouraM 
for rallying also non-proletarian women 
as well as house wives who are at the 
same time doing professional work, around 
the banner of Communism for the struggle 
against capitalism. The capitalist decay 
has created in. Great Britain, in Germany 
and other bourgeois states a large class 
of new rich as well as a large class ol. 
new poor. The middle class has been or 
is being proletarianised. Consequently, 
the exigencies of life are cruelly pulling 
at the near! strings as well as at to 
purse strings of many women who hitherto 
had a terribly secure and pleasant exi- 
stence under the capitalist system. -Taj 
many professional women, especially tw 
intellectuals, such as teachers, civil J 
vants and office employees ottaUJ| 
are getting rebellious against tins m 
all possible Worlds" and are pressed! 
the struggle agaiust capitalism. | 
the pressure of the high V™*** n M 
disparity between income ant w | 
living, many house wives, lncluaM 8 {l 
gcois house wives, are bog f^. 
realise that the perpetuation oi £fj 
ism is incompatible with then m» 

ollSn mrk among the women in the Trad 
*?Tn« and co-operatives and for these 
^ipfarian organisations can contribute 
P r dderable to the achievement of this 
* On both these fields the women can 
ainl 'nt only collaborators in the United 
Knot but' they can achieve something 
K2U and higher as the pioneers of the 
t 'ted Front in many movements. 
What about the conditions which can 
.ire this possible? I have already men- 
? n ned what pitiless inroads present day 
"nditions make into the lives of millions 
S women, causing many of them to awa- 
ken from their torpor. All that has ham- 
npred us hitherto, the political backward- 
Jess and the indifference of the women 
as a whole, can, under the pressure of 
unbearable suffering, bring over the adult 
women into the Communist camp. Politi- 
cally and socially the mentality and the 
soul of the women have not received as 
much attention as the mentality and the 
SO ul of the men. Their mentality is less 

I s affected by the false and deceptive watch- 
words of the Social Democratic refor- 
mists, the bourgeois reformer and of other 
elements. Their mentality is frequently 
like a blank sheet, therefore, we shall 
subsequently find it easier to bring the 
hitherto indifferent female masses into 
our struggle -without the preliminary tran- 
sition through surf erage, pacifist and other 
reformist organisation. In this respect, 
I want to sound a note of warning. We 
must not be too sanguine and expect that 
the women will join us immediately in 
the struggle for our final aims, but we 
may depend on them in our defensive 
struggle against the general offensive of 
the bourgeoisie. I am convinced that they 
will take part in this struggle in a most 
energetic fashion. 

I believe that our women comrades in 
fWgaria, to whom we owe much inspira- 
m, as well as energetic activity within 
JJ e Ummnnist International, have shown 
f„„ a ^°°d way which we can and must 
2m\ t0 estal)lis »- during our defensive 
L Sgies, organisational * point d'appui 

I m S these women for our future strug- 



'" rallying points 
ror the attraction of the female masses 
il,ii Vi **?*"*« and action* of the 
L ,,?," * , „ Italian women comrades have 
begun to follow this example. They hmi 
also established groups of sympathising 
\vomen, comprising women who are stil 
loath to enter into political parties an 
to attend political meetings, etc. 1 a 
convinced that this beginning will bear 
good fruit. The example which has been 
set us must not only receive the recog- 
nition of all those who do communist 
work among women in all countries, but 
also be followed. This will not only 
strengthen the communist section of our 
International, but will also have two other 
good results: the extension of communist 
influence among the vast proletarian and 
non-proletarian sections of the population 
and foment deterioration and disunion in 
the ranks of the bourgeoisie, viz., weak- 
ening our mortal enemy. And every 
weakening of the bourgeoisie is a strength- 
ening of the proletarian forces in the 
struggle for the overthrow of the bour- 
geoisie and its class domination. 

Comrades, 1 will not go into details of 
our communist work of drawing women 
into the trade union and co-operat 
movements. I leave this to Comrade Hei 
Sturm who will follow me. I merely want 
to point out that in our work we must 
not raise false illusions. We must, on 
the contrary, do our utmost to destroy 
the illusion that the trade union and co- 
operative movements within the capital- 
ist system are capable of bringing about 
legislation for the benefit of the prole- 
tariat and of destroying the foundations 
of capitalism. 

However useful and indespensable the 
work of trade unions and co-operatives 
may be they cannot undermine and over- 
throw capitalism. They can only come 
into their own after the conquest of politi- 
cal power bv the proletariat, after the 
establishment of the proletarian dictator- 
ship. Then the trade uuions and the co- 
operatives will become not only means 
for the destruction of the relics of capi- 
talism, but also build the new, higher 


life of a Communist Society. In view of 
the great sigficanee of proletarian dictator- 
ship lor the character and activity of 
trade unions and co-operatives, we must 
also in our case emphasise the great 
differences which exist between the com- 
munist work among- the women of the 
Soviet Republics and that of the states 
which are still under a capitalist regime 
In these latter states both these organi- 
sations will play an important role as 
defensive and offensive organs of the 
wide masses; the trade union movement 
for the masses as producers, and the co- 
operative movement for the struggle 
against the merchant's and usurer's capital 
On the other hand, the educational and 
constructive task of both these forms of 
proletarian organisation will predominate 
in the Soviet State. 

Comrades, I must call your attention to the 
fact that our work during the past year 
has made us realise, in connection with 
one particular phase of our movement, 
the importance of drawing women into 
the ranks of the Communist International. 
I mean the impotant role which the 
communist women and the women who 
are in sympathy with us are playing 
in those countries where illegal agitation 
is the only form of communist activity, 
or where, side by side with the legal 
organisations, illegal organisations are 
working underground. In countries, 
such as Finland, Poland and others, the 
self sacrificing and intelligent work of 
Communist women is proving invaluable. 
If we are to be confronted with the 
blakest reaction, Fascism, and compelled 
to fight illegally, answering violence 
with violence and retaliating the lawles- 
sness of the bourgeoisie by ignoring and 
treating with contempt bourgoeis law and 
order, the comrades will find that they 
will be able to make no headway unless 
.hey have the women working side by 
Ide with them. The Turin proletarian 
romen have shown that we can depend 
_pon the self sacrificing support of the 
women wherever Fascism has sway. 
During the recent big proletarian demon- 
stration against Fascism in Turin, armed 
proletarian women marched behind a. Wed 
banner bearing the device: "Rosa Luxem- 
burg". This fact ought to make the 
bourgeois think furiously, for it lias cer- 

tainly raised the courae-e 
spirit in the ranks of the ; * an , d %« 
Comrades, if A ™ T Worker* h % 


Comrades, if our 


among the women is to caiS Unist WrJ 
tasks of which I have a-iSn 5 01lt al k 
sketch, you together w th ^ a *S 
confronted with the q^io^ jWB 
Communist women within the Are tk 
the International endowed w tw^s , 
ciousness, the will and eneni he Cc % 
for this work among the female 5 U N 
And ^ 

munists (for on the wholT J A nen C % 


„ & UAiC .tenia n m c u 
1 we must not conceal the t ass W' 
women as well as the m^S 
lists (for on the whole we CfJI u- 
worse and more stupid tha* J** m 
frequently lack the necessary LIT are ' 
tal, theoretical and practical t ■ E " 
The backwardness and weakn*- -& 


women in the political "movSj*^ 
reflects the backwardness and the*! 1 ' 
ness in the Communist ranks in «JS 

This IS duo. nnnf'm Kt t n +k_ ..b^rai 

This is due principally to the fact 2 
our sections are still very yo '™« 
inexperienced. Lamest work will over 
come this weakness which we must til 
into the bargain with the many \»dvan 
tages of the youthful status of our move 
ment. Comrades, it is of the greatei 
importance to overcome as quickly as 
possible the lack of training and i- 
weakness of those who are to carry out 
the Communist work among the AmuV 
proletariat. Therefore, I enjoin you all, to 
take care thai the Communist women 
within your ranks should be individually 
made responsible for the carrying out o| 
the practical tasks of the Party. See ft 
it that they should have all the educi 
tional opportunities and that all the 
educational institutions which exist for 
the theoretical and practical training oj 
our members, should also be open for 
them. See to it that wherever co-educa- 
tion is impossible, the necessary educa- 
tional organs, such as courses, lectures 
and suitable articles in the press m 
literature should In- established for w 
benefit of the women members. Co™™, 
es, the fundamental and practical 

trf period it is absolutely necessary 
pr ese T the o-reatest attention to a clear 
^fundamental education of the women. 
&n d l +1^ transition period, the ship of 
Fr0 %rdsm must go, out into the wide 
c ° of the revolutionary mass struggles 
oC ' ea Sie conquest of political power and 
f f the establishment of the proletarian 
r atorship. There are two perils of 
Si we must beware. From the Left 
fere is the peril that the ship might foun- 
fv on the rocks of adventurous Putsch 
lanticism, and from the Right there 
the peril that the ship might run into 
L sf ndbanks of reformism or might 
"Jt stuck in the stagnant waters of op- 
portunism. There is only one thing which 
; vi H enable us to overcome the perils 

capitalist order, 


^Ve^of^^ "*» 

m the Left as well as those from the pass without working for the woH 
Lht. And that is- the will to act with volution. World revofution does not 
„ clear understanding of the historic si- mean work! A M wW£ ? J 1 S A°: 

nuu am. i' ( , p . 
ning of the women into valuable boi 
ifiist workers in the Communist struj 


gle, is 

and is an Important and m< lisp« »- ul]v 

pre-requisite of your success. 

convinced of this. 
J am of the opinion 

that jus 

t in 

tht 1 

„ de- 
lation of the present world crisis and 

„f the means to overcome it, which means 
j dear understanding of the pre-requisites 
if the revolutionary struggle. Atone time, 
Danton sent forth to the revolutionary 
pioneers of the French revolution the 
watchword; audacity, more audacity and 
always audacity: Comrades, this is the 
atchword which we will continually put 
efore the women who want, to fight for 
Ommunism. Hitherto, they were an espe- 
cially passive element, and everything 
demands at present that they should be 
Espeeialy active therefore;' Audacity, 
paore audacity and always audacityrHow- 
ever, we must add to "this watchword, 
BIB watchword of the greatest proletar- 
ian leader, Comrade Lenin: clarity, more 
prity and always clarity: cleverness, 
leverness and always cleverness: 
M as the expression of fear, not as an 
F C0D >e of vacillation and hesitation, but 
^pre-requisite of the death blow to 

Comrades, we must endorse 

L lr ; situation at present? 

'.lull her -' - * " ■ 

this. What 
iard at this Congress has shown 
' ll "' Third International put a 
^interpretation on the world situation 
ast Congress. All the signs of the 
n SJ10 w us that society is objectively 



i e ; , 7 "au no proof that the will 

J rol, ' l; "'i'it, the will of the class 

to/* 5 . 110 ^' us that societv is objectivel 

^' IJ f.Y eve,, over-ripe for the olimim 

lliti; ,,., 01 ' ll, < 1 overthrow, of capitalisn 

„i , Y Had no proof that the wi 


to be the 

grave digger of the 

the word. But, 

of Sn ^Pervious to the influence 

oi sun, ram and storm. In suite nf thl 

tney ria\e grown soft and are «rme" tn 

a lS e bi^ Wn '- Perha P s ^ Vatlg of 
ths iv.Wi 8 ^?8 will suffice to move 
tins avalanche which will bury the val- 

\TthTt T ltS , We i gM ' ^ *o not know 
' n p h n f eDt ^nation how soon we, 
men and wemen, will be faced with the 
world revolution. Therefore, we must not 
;°™ 1S&1\ hour > nay, a single minute 

Id re- 
mean world destruction and'the'destnic^ 
tion of capitalism. Is also means world 
construction and the creation of Commun- 
ism. Let us get our inspiration from the 
real meaning of the word: Let us be ready, 
and let us make the masses ready, in 
order that they might become the world 
creators of Communism (Loud Applause). 

C h ir m a n N eur a t h: Comrade Hertha 
Sturm (Germany) now has the floor as 
the second reporter. 

Hertha Sturm: (Germany), Comra- 
des, the task of the Communist Party 
With regard to the women" s movement is 
that of .drawing the broad masses of 
' working women into the proletarian class 
struggle in order to organise and train 
them. In our forward march to this end 
we still have the greater part of the way 
ahead of us. Just as the Communist 
Party has not yet won over the majority 
of the men workers, so is this still more 
true of the women: who are still unorga- 
nised not only because of the general 
reasons affecting the organisation of the 
men also, but for special reasons of their 
own as well. The comparativety undeve- 
loped consciousness of the women accounts 
for this just as it doos for the scarcity 
of women in all political parties. 

If we want to measure the infh: 
which we have on the working class 
women we have merely to county the 
number of women members in the Com- 
munist Party. We then observe that, 
while tbe women workers nowadays 
constitute more than half of the working 




class— in the ages from 20 to 45 years 
(an age which is of special importance 
for political activities), instead of having 
50 per cent or more in the Communist 
Party they number only about 10 per 
cent of the total membership. But, on a 
closer view we see that there are consi- 
derable dii'ferenses between various par- 
ties. The bigger the party becomes nume- 
rically the larger is the percentage of 
of women members. 

I will give you a single example of 
this. We have in Czecho-Slovakia for 
example, 30,000 women members which 
makes 20 per cent of the total member- 
ship; Germany, with 25,000 women mem- 
bers, has 11—12 per cent of the total 

In the Norwegian Party there are 
15,000—16,000 women members, forming 
15 per cent of the total membership. 
Contrary to this example there is a whole 
group of parties, including Prance, Italy, 
England and Belgium, whioh shows us 
quite different results. In France there 
are only 18.000 women members making 
2 per cent of the total memborship; in 
Italy there are from 3500 to 4000 mem- 
bers — a percentage of ono and a half. In 
England the number of women members 
is not definitely ascertained, but it is 
undoubtedly very small. In Belgium about 
300 women members form 6 per cent of 
the whole Party. 

I can make\this even clearer by show- 
ing how the proportion of women mem- 
bers, varies not only from party to party, 
but also in various districts according to 
the amount of organisation and activity. 
For example, in the biggest sections in 
Berlin the women make 20 per cent of the 
membership as against the national ave- 
rage of 10 per cent On the other hand, 
in some districts when; organisation is 
weak, and party policies are not clearly 
defined, the percentage is below. Similraly 
in Czecho-Slovakia, of the German spea- 
king district of Aussig, which lias for 
long had a well-organised women's move- 
ment, the women formed 50 per cent of 
the membership, as against the general 
average of 20 per cent, while in Czech 
and Slovakian districts there are many 
, sections with much less than (hat. 
It is evident then thai, the more inten- 
the work of the Communist Party, 

the more firm and definite ii 

the Party or of any partir , st aM 

the stronger is tho influence o?!!i.. b C? I Wf?l°(!tt&g™~ into Public life. In these 

on the women, and conspr i,, ft T J ViV * aI1 tries women have not yet been 

larger the number of women iS?i ly t ^ c ° loyed in great numbers in the large 




ln the p. 

There is yet another tenden 
served. In those countries -° y to 


Communist Party is the 


king class party, where it ha? g< 5 W. 
the masses of the old Social n ^H 
parties into its ranks—flip «-_ enx °cpati. 

Pati c 

women members is the highest n 

This is particularly true in th 
Czecho-Slovakia and' Norway j\ Ca,Se of 
men who were politically awakened 
the Social-Demoeratjc movement ? J 
been brought over into the com*, Ve 
wovement together with their old st 
isations, while in the young and S"' 
communist parties every member 2 
be gamed individually, so to speak fl 
the masses of those women who h 
not yet been politically organised from 
the membership of the reformist parties 
The fact that in France, where the 
Party is in such an advantageous p 0SL 
tion with regard to the opportunist wor- 
kers' parties, the proportion is so low 
(27 a per cent) is to be accounted fork 
another cause which holds true for ser- 
ving as an obstacle for the organisation 
of the women. I refer to the views 
masses ol workers, which penetrate ev?i 
into the ranks of the communists, and 
which had its classical expression in 
l soT) at the International Congress in 
London, one year after the founding ol 
the hirst International. At this Co 
there was a great dispute as to « 
Hie word "worker", should be taken to 
include the working woman as well. > 
that time the representative of the l-rent 
delegation expressed the following m 
Tho man is to work ami stud} the so jL 
problem: the woman is to care oMJ 
children and of the home ol 
ker. This ideology, which is partituffl 
strong in hrancc and Italy ,» 
weniusl riKlitwillnilimrin.KjU 
ponsUilc lor the smallncss n ,. 

membership in all these emu, i- ■ it ,„ 
ally, we understand Unit m ; 
view has an economic cans , ^ .) 
tact that in I Vance. [ aly a. uUP ' t W| 
scale industry 1ms not yc bi oii^ ^ 
numbers of the women out 

llg households, nor from the peas- 
' vo-ps. into public life 

have not yet been 

e ^Ks" and this natarall y influences 
f f ^oin't of view regarding the role of 
th l P e°n in political life. 
v it i* for obvious reasons impossible to 
prtain the numerical proportion of 
ieii members in those countries where 
X ° Party is illegal. But, it appears that 
ffLa Vomen are enrolled in the general 

\x work of the illegal parties. 
pa \Vhat shall we conclude from these 
fJts? And what lesson shall we draw 

the relative per- 

we may see how 

tremendously difficult it is to win the 

;n for communism, and to bring 

them into the Party 

prom the examples o 
"intake of membershi 



the large masses of the women workers' 
iiL i u 0ne thin S has been accomp- 
lished; we have convinced our comrades of 

Thereof SiK ° fl V pecial wom ^'« ^gans. 
tX + - &Ll , U a lon ^ wa y to ^e prac- 
W T° tlVlty ot tne3e committees and 
wvfrh V must i s P, eak on certain Points 

Xf£ 0l ?i' ade Zetkln nas already rome- 
wnat dwelt upon. 

nnLT ish t0 poin , out tnat in England, a 
country especialy important for the 
International struggle of the proletariat, 
no Central women's committee has been 
created by the Executive to conduct the 
work systematically for the whole country 
, * m $h to point out that in France 
today there are only 15 woman's com- 
mittees as against manv hundred local 


It also follows that the organisation of 
tj ie women of the proletariat has not 
been considered by the Communist Par- 
ties as a task of first importance, on the 
contrary, one had to fight rather vigour - 
ously within the ranks of the party for 
its recognition. 

Still another lesson is to be drawn 
from the way in which our women mem- 
bers are recruited. They are partly polit- 
ically unschooled fighters. The great 
majoity of them are not workers but. 
housewives, the wives of our comrades, 
who have joined the Party less out of 
conviction than because (hey were per- 
suaded to do so. By their very nature 
sueli elements are passive, they lack the 
experience and the training for any agit- 
ation, and first of all they are out of 
touch with the mass ol the women wor- 
kers of the factories and of the Trade 
t : n ions. 

This makes it all the more necessary to 
Pake systematic use of these weak 'for- 
lVs . to organize them in such rational 
fashion as to ulna in the greatest amount 
" w ork from l he expenditure of energy, 
ine women's committees of the Communist 
lill " l . v have been created for that very 
FPose. The first (ask of the Internat- 
JP B| Women's secretary since the time 

11111 ^s cm) i iv was removed to Belin 
SJJ b0 °n fo increase the effectiveness of 
M \T iini/,;,,i(ms OQ an International, 
coiikr mily sa - v tnat lilr preliminary 

tQ Uions have been created to win over 

against many 
organizations of the Party, and that the 
central women's secretariat in France has 
been jeopardised and actually dissolved 
by the crisis in the Party. 

I wish further to point to Czecho-Slo- 
vakia where the Party is strongly orga- 
nized, and where in spite of this only 
one-seventh of the local groups have 
deemed it necessary to answer a question- 
naire sent by the women's secretariat, 
that only one tenth of the local organiza- 
tions have women members, and that 47 
in all, i. e., only 2%, can boast of a 
women's committee. 

It is no wonder then that when the 
work of organization among the women 
is so much neglected in a "strong Party 
like that of Czeoho Slovakia, that in the 
smaller Parties, like Austria, Holland and 
Denmark, their activity is confined to 
the capital of the country, to the seat 
of the Central Executive, 

The coming period of intensified prole- 
tarian struggle over all Europe demands 
that the number of women's committees 
be increased to extend into the smallest 
local organizations.. 

What are the tasks of these committees'.' 
The most immediate, the most elementary 
task is that the few active oomrai 
should do all the necessary work; th< 
must become maids of all work, ["hey 
must carry on organization and 
ganda work throughout the whole count 
they must speak they must 
must issue instructions for definite a 
vity within all branches of the p 
life". We cannot hope to ace 
tremendous work before us with the 


active comrades which we have, n, must 
be another task of these comrades to 
educate the unexperienced women in the 
Party and prepare them for definite tasks 
For this purpose discussion evenings 
courses, and circles for women must be 
organized, in order to prepare them for 
their work among the misses outside of 
the Party. H is a sign of strength in the 
English movement, or at least a positive 
beginning of the work, when our comra- 
des with true instinct begin their activity 
by creating the small Party schools for 
women comrades of which comrade Zet- 
kin spoke. 1 believe that in Parties such 
as Czecho - Slovakia, where the women 
membership are numerically large but 
whose members, revolutionary by feeling, 
have not yet been methodically educated, 
that it will be necessary to organize 
such educational opportunities under the 
leadership of the women's secretariat 
and with the support of the Party 
Executive all over the country in order 
to draw the women comrades into active 
participation in the movement in order 
to teach them what it means to be a 
Communist and what tasks and duties 
fall upon Communist women. 

The third task, however, is the most 
important, The women's committee must 
see to it that agitation among the large 
masses of the women proletariat be 
included in the general work of the 
Party; that it does not remain a special 
task of a small handful of [Communist 
women. They must make all efforts that 
the agitation among the women become 
a branch of the whole movement, that 
it be carried on by all organizational 
and political means at the disposal of 
the Party, and be supported by the full 
authority of the Party and its various 

We still have to make the first step 
in that direction; the attempt to force this 
principle upon the Party has not always 
been made in best manner. In the Latin 
countries, for instance, where the women 
had to fight against the petty bourgeois 
prejudices of their own comrades, we 
have witnessed a certain infiltration of 
feminism. We all know • this prejudice 
which originated from the very beginning 
of the women's movement, when the men 
and women comrades oppose each other. 
The women comrades complained that 


themeii did not appreciate 

and iaded to support them ,. 

Ported that the women j^' 1 ; 16 ^^ 
ittle of the work anu^dh IT V ^ 

91 ™e i ,. | mm 


pass. We fmd in our piW' u " 1 all 
instance in the French organ n> as fop 
although this paper is on i h m %" 
well conducted, and also j n Z u'K 
women's Organ "Cainppa^na" n alia " 
articles against our male tm r X ? Ucal 
ming that the woman is Zv? clai ' 
being with rights equal to those TS 
man and. should be allowed nartLJA 
in the political struggle aSHggH 
her, own interests. " ce of 

Such articles appeared in England „„ 
the first women's page of the "coiu 
nist , during the International WoS 
Conference. They have nothing R 
with the revolutionising of the mass? 
they do not refer to the misery of th 
English working women; they are onlv 
the fight for the understanding f th*- 
woman problem in the ranks of the 
Communist Party. Such articles demon- 
strate weakness, but nevertheless we 
welcomed them at that time because n 
saw in them the beginning of the clearing 
up process which would bring together 
the men and women comrades and create 
a unified party. 

When we put the question, how far we 
were able to win the masses of the 
women and incorporate them into the 
proletarian party, we must acknowledge 
that. our success has been very slight, 
Comrade Zetkin mentioned two Interna- 
tional actions which had been earned 
out with comparative success. The Inter- 
national Women's Day and the Relief 
campaign for Soviet Russia. There was » 
special reason why we had been able m 
these cases to mobilise the women aw 
win them over to Communist ideas, w 
at least awaken their interest row 


international women B -v 
d a certain revolutionary tradiW 
- 3 <md International; tw^- 
why many parties corrupted WT ^ 
democratic ideology and gfBOTj i0 
terested in the matter V^t n [of 
this campaign. The Relief camp , ^ 
Soviet Russia was Buccesslul ^ 
reasons. First, because the women 

Presented in the national relief org 
La and secondly because this camp 

Kpealcd to the best instinets oj 
• men, to their motherly instinct which 

r nn A here opportunity f or C(1 j|,, 

-— u,u«8. inese are all *'> H, ' » (1 here opportunity for collective 
diseases through which We " ' ll(| k,| Sjsion, in the form of solidarity 

lass. We flld in m,, ., ni ^St 1 eXp' L - sl ' , nf fho world nmlafoni-^oJl^ 

§JJ vanguard of the world proletariat^ 



latin the Children's Week, whir 
ic d to carry out with the help < 


h we 

of tin- 

international Communist Youth, we were 
successful only where the Youth Organi- 
Ltions functioned well; in those countries 
mere this was not the case, as in Czecho- 
glovakia, this campaign was a flat 
failure. From these experiences we come 
to definite conclusions. At the Conference 
of the International. Women's Correspon- 
dents in Berlin there was a good deal of 
criticism of the activities of the Interna- 
tional Women's Secretariat. It was said 
that we did not understand how to 
inaugurate international action by women 
when opportunity presented itself. If.that 
was so, it was caused neither by lack of 
foresight on our part, nor by a certain 
passivity. It was not because we had not 
realized the questions on the International 
order of the day or because we had not 
known how to bring this question to 
public notice by common International 
action. Our lack of activity is far more 
attributable to the simple tact that our 
organization has been too weak to effect in- 
ternational demonstrations on a large scale, 
if the Communist Party does not stand 
behind us with all its power. It will be highly 
necessary to initiate a number of campai- 
gns; such as for woman suffrage in Prance, 
Bulgaria, aud other countries. We could 
and should undertake action for the de- 
fence and extension of women workers' 
welfare, against the high cost of living, 
increasing children's epidemics, against 
gfi threatening danger of war and against 
White terror. We could engage in activi- 
ar or l„ benali ' of men and women, who 
we i ei1ng ' P oliticat imprisonment. But 
It 1 W ^ lat under present conditions 
. is most necessary to secure the aid of 
tne women in the general struggle of 

whir.} mmunist ?art y for those airas 

tta , ln each country, stand first upon 
h > m ? gTam ' ln England, for example, 
fee in s P ecia % endeavor to organize 
great ployed women together with the 
m ass of the unemployed, in order 

In ail ■ 
wo meiI ii 



having :.: , of 

Action has informed u mDle the 

union struggle has now assumed I 

probably soon have to be inin 
Czecho - Slovakia, Austria, Prance 

. ^' Lth , re ff ard l <> the unemployed question 
in England I would like to state here that 
the English Party has not assumed 
task ot bringing the unemloyed women into 
this movement. For months we have 
been pressing the English Party to 
up this matter, and we hope that 
Executive will also advise this Party < i 
special means to gain the support 
these women, for example through th* 
distribution of literature. We hear from 
England that in Dundee, a town wit 
unusually large number of women in 
industry— the jute industry, where there 
are seven women workers" to each m tie 
worker— there is a great deal of u 
ployment. Here, for example, it would be 
necessary to go to the working women 
and explain to them the connection 
ween their unemployment and the capi- 
talist system and British imperialism; 
and especially how the development of 
the jute industry and the exploitation of 
the colonial workers has affected their 

The most important task which we 
have to fulfill in order to get the women 
into general party work, is the work 
within the factories and unions. It was 
no accident, but the result of a definite 
plan of the International Women's Secre- 
tariat that we proceeded as soon as the 
resolutions on the women's movement 
had been adopted in the International, to 


o ;1 m-.e. immediately, common action or 
ho Women s International with the Trade 
Union Section which wore entrusted by 
the Party with the work of notation and 
education in the factories and T?adeuSon s 
From this point of view it was real y a 

i; > aisfer Us Women's Secretariat 

from Kome to lunn, a couple of weeks 
ago A good reason for this move was 
that in Koine there is not a single woman 
member of the party as there^are pmc 
t ca y no women engaged in industry. In 
Turin however, in Piedmont, in Nor- 
thern \italy, in the region of industrial 
Lombardy with its well developed contact 
with the masses of the working women 
in the mills and the labor unions. To 
return to the question of Norway, we 
must state that we believe that the 
Women s Leagues in Norway should be 
dissolved because we must preserve 
unity of organisation, namely, the inclus- 
ion of the women in the general organi- 
sation. But mainly we advocate this on 
good grounds that special women's orga- 
nisations through their independence and 
exclusiveness are set apart from the 
general party life, and limit the possi- 
bilities for agitation among the great 
numbers of the women workers in the 
factories and unions who are outside the 
circle of these special women's organi- 

It is no accident that Bulgaria, which 
possesses the model party of the Inter- 
national — of course relatively, as Zinoviev 
has said — is that country where the 
organisation of the working women in 
the labor unions and factories has been 
farthest extended. In Bulgaria there are 
special organs in the Party and in the 
Trade Unions which are completely con- 
trolled by the Party; the coordination 
between the Party and Trade Union Com- 
mittees is definitely defined by rules 
and statutes; and the greatest care is 
taken of the special conditions and needs 
of the working women and the task the 
Communist Party is to accomplish for 
the mobilisation of women in the unions 
and factories. 

In the illegal parties the work within 
the Trade Unions is of special importance. 
In Finland, Rumania, and Spain, Where 
the Party is not able to function openly 
and obtain contact with the working 

women, the Trade Union* 

Len -u m ,.i. u l aey ^ l| y 

influence the women w 0r v* he * * y 
Communist standpoint KeiB h'oA 
The difficulties which oi 1,; 

way of labor union work a i? an * in «, 
are closely connected L^ <* 
culties which affect labor iL h " Se 2 s 
general in the various Xti^WFfc 
realise that the Trade Con t > 4 

ral Trade Union work is pC>^ 

lsed, and makes more pro<£ P £ ?tf 0l "§aS 

stand that in England^M e 4E 

mumst Party through its nu niei i u Go ^ 

ness, has obtained but eTS? 1 ^ 

influence in the Trade TV 5 Sm *ll 

question of organising the worff!' tlle 

cannot be yet taken up wl § Wnr 

France, where there is much L S 

within the ranks of the Arh * m * 

whether the Communist Party sho'u* 8 to 

politically within the Trade uS*? 

if so, in what form, that this we^' 

is reflected in the movement of t? 

working woman. Our women com J e 

in Prance find it terribly difS H f 

accomplish any practical work in Z 

unions, when they must struggle with 

the leadership of the Party f or \ 

maintenance of their Women's Secretariat 

and their women's paper; and when thev 

must fight within the party for the 

acceptance of the fundamental" principle 

that it is the duty of the Communist 

Party to work within the Trade Union 

in order to secure an influence over the 


In Czech o - Slovakia, where we have 
brought large masses of the workers 
under the influence of the lied Inter- 
national of Labor Unions, it is simply 
through the lack of time, or lack of 
activity, that we have not yet been able 
to educate the masses to the necessity 
of work among women. The Czech women 
comrades on " the Executive have quite 
rightly requested the International Woj 
men's Secretariat and the Red Inter- 
national of Labor Unions that the RIM 
sees to it that the demands oi W 
working women be more seriously tau« 
up by the unions affiliated with it, among 
v&ich, for example, the agrieu Itasg 
workers alone have 30,000 women niea 

Comrades, the necessity of moWm 

^^^^^^jmm^ nom ^ 

working women for the struggle 
the v u g to organise the work amone 
Anions systematically. This means 
B J thc /th.e Communists must absolutely 
r ?ttia nrtive part m the most important 
^•nn of the general party work. So 
P° rtl \s the construction of- Communist 
l 0ll £- n s is not accomplished as the foun- 

f enn of our work within the labor unions 
i factories, the Communist women 

L their specia 1 - 
the revolutionary 

a factOu^'-'j — -. - ""juci 

a ^i all their special plans and proposal 


women in 

education of 
the factories 


are merely beating- the air. It is 

. xu:.-. ti n 1A „.u ___ . , 

,a so tar ,JUL ij - uijiu ' ^"^^, i^nau wc> see 
U clearly how strongly the Communist 
hr among women is bound up with 

F To! 'the 
ihPi work oi 

- p with 
Communist movement 

f general. If we wish to get a foothold 
L on"- the working women, we Commun- 
■ st w oraen must work with the greatest 
energy ancl care witnin tne Communist 
Arties on the genera] tasks of the Par- 
ties, and so build up our labor unions' 
tells systematically from below. The more 
rapidly and thoroughly we accomplish 
these tasks, the sooner will the organs 
of our special work among the working 
women develop. Together with the butt- 
ling of union nuclei we must link up all 
communist women in the trade unions 
and allot to them the duty of becoming 
the spokesmen of the demands of the 
working women. The communist trade 
union women must stand in closest re- 
lationship with the women's party com- 
mittees, in order to secure the mutual 
exchange of experiences and to discuss 
how the masses of the working women 
may be further enlightened and drawn 
yet further into the proletarian struggle; 
Just a word on the question of the 
consumers' co operatives. The cooperati- 
ves differ from the trade unions inasmuch 
« their members consist not only of wor- 
png women but of great masses of pro- 
letarian housewives. Here we have a field 
wr work which contains large numbers 
I women whom we could not reach 
gjough our work in the factories and 

wrlr SeC, t?- lilctor causes us to undertake 
sentV tl10 co-operatives- at the pre- 

|; p l '^ e - This is the daily increase in 
LJr 1 oi Uving and the general suf- 
, B winch may be found in nearly all 

with \Z Lj , whlch - working together 

against tht /Sit • stl W le will be made 
T1 "^ °. ] toe working masses 

build vi , » ii I i + • C0 -°P er ^es, will 
which will V evo S tlona ^ consciousness 
oi hP n , i f r ^ n ?then the United Front 

rrla ■ i? n 8 clas s who are not vet ppo-a 
8 CoSriS 6 P rod ^ ctive Processes 7 6ng ^ 

^SLZSl^ inftace ^ 

tiv^ 11 ! 6 Internation al, we have a compara- 
tnely large women's press; besides this 
we can put our problems before thlmS 
ses through the general Pafty organs 
We m^st acknowledge that our women's 
piesb has not yet succeeded in reaching 
the widest possible masses of the prole- 
tariat. In a great many countries the 
circulation of women's publications are 
not as large as the number of women 
Party members. Bulgaria and Italy are 
examples of the opposite fact; there the 
women's press reaches the larger masses 
and is part of the organisation of the 
Party. This should be our aim everywhere 

The contents of the press reflect all the 
weaknesses of the Communist Feminist 
Movement as well as those of the gene- 
ral Communist Movement. I would" like 
to point out two mistakes which, in a 
way, represent two extremes. 

The one extreme made itself especially 
manifest in the Dutch women's magazine 
"De Voorde". In theory and principle this 
magazine is exceptionally clear and respon- 
sible, but it had so little connection with th 
real needs of the proletarian women, too 
so little consideration of their specia 
conditions in Holland that it did not 
correspond to the mentality of these 
women. Since then, the magazine ha 
been made to correspond much better t 
the real needs of the masses. The othej 
extreme is presented in the "Zenai" 
(published in Briin, Czeeho-Slovakia). In 
order to gain the greatest popularity, 
this magazine has sacrificed the basic 
piinciple of Communism; it appeals too 
much to the petty bourgeois preju 

nothing to 

of the proletarian women and caters in 

teir craving for sensation- i 

too many tilings that have 


< ! might be useful, in this connection 

to mention the French press. Although the 

rasDonsihle editors of tlie "Ouvriere' ? have 

m- Marseilles Congress they have had to 
contend gainst a tendency in th\ Com- 
munist Party which wanted to conduct 
this magazine into a fashion magazine 
and a book of cooking recipes 

We wish to urge upon the international 
mat we cannot afford any such luxuries 
that our organs exist to carry on Com- 
munist propaganda among the workino- 
women, and nothing- else/ 



basis has been created 

forces of the Party, all V nite *u 
outside the Party tanks ^V' P^LM 
them for the coming s?^, * oS 
This we know: At? tt^S; , S 

gross, ever;,„, 

done in the Communist \^} m ^ fj 
merit; to-day the founda ^SJ ^ 
laid for agitation amone- w Jlav e h 
the nextfworld 0^!^°™^ 4« 

I" ( "l| 


able to declare that the J^ 

women has become an intern aiT1 «J 
the general Party work, \gt P" 1 * « 
been able to mobilise the tL We hi 
lead them into the revolt l ^ J 
ment to light in a United fi f ^ 
final victory of the proletariat ° r ^ 
Smidovjtch: In R USsia ' tl 

1 s5 sasasai 2?^^ 

,. unit fur their activitie tt m 
l c l electors, and thus they form aco a ,h„ 

ft* link between the Communis, *L* 

tfafty aml * lhB Wid ° n,jn -I ,nr{ y wor] 
el ¥t ' the Soviet elections it became eyj 
IS that ili'' women delegates were verv 
live, that they were taking part in tl,; 

At ll Ant fhnv vnfo f/-,T. ,.„. 


~ cti0 „ s th»t thoy v. te for ;;,;;,;„;;;,;;- ;;<; 

n,iidates and that a considerable num .' , f' l ' )il ; 
»«hem were taking membe »™ !»~ 

.i.- R. C. P- _ ,,,.,. ' . , ,. .pndertal . ■ . ■ , . „„, 

"nee , 

! I 7;;;: jil - 

ie R- ^- 


p t doomed to Paiin™ not orllv 

P .fty has bute to the SS e0Dtr *- 

We are met with a difficulty in the ganda ahd Citation a™ f?\^ Q VW 

letlv from theVr 3 7^ reSUlt P S di " Wkers are ^dSSedbJleS!, T^ 

I'ctu fiom the financial weakness of our ments under the ausniee?T a l de Patt- 

2™1 Pai ; tleS \ Tt , is P^sible that munist Party which use special ^ iM ^ m l Qm f gTWin * 

we may have to abandon some of the in their work owlim- to thThnni- ftod > 

women's periodicals. The "Ouvriere" will of the female masses tHmp f Wardn «« 

disappear, another magazine must take work on equal terms with all?h^? 

ont P T -Z & T St mS]St T n + , the Carrying de P artment s of the part? commUtees 0thef 

Q wL±^r™s *, ^..JP™ US __!5° met ^ds of theVork^kl 


Womens' Conference and World Con 
ference, that every Party must provide 
space for a women's page; and not only 
according to the arbitrary will of the 
editor or secretary, but they must be 
made a regular feature of the paper. 

We must increase the Importance of 

the women's movement so that vre secure 

in the general section of the Party press 

and in every other organ of the Party, 

in the Trade Union magazines, in the 

scientific publications in the agrarian 

publications, etc. The women's movement 

will not attain its due importance until 

it receives the full support of the Party, 

untill all the problems of the women are 

thoroughly discussed in the Party organs 

and the importance of agitation among 

women has been recognised. 

In conclusion I \vould say that the 
prospects for the women's movement are 
very favourable; they will improve with 
the development of the Communist Inter- 
national. The progress of the movement 

t t the Russian Communist Party de- 
mands regular party activity from all its 

The number of working women in the 
u . a de unions is growing from year to 
vear, and we have at present about a 
pillion and a half women trade union 

A considerable number of working wo- 
men are members of workshop commit- 
tees and of Administrative Councils of 
Trade Unions. The Central Trade Unions 
The Central Trade Union Committees have 
also some women members. The new eco- 
lomic policy imposes upon us the task 
workino- women into Tir^t^n^ 7 f'' ,f P reventm £ the women workers beco- 

mg the influence of the Communist Party Sy. The ^ work i^ ^ w n/ n's secS 

among the masses oi the working and displayed much energy on this field]? 

peasant women. In each commuoist is JwhV to their inmJ I, +!? f i' , 
nucleus there is a comrade whose dutv women's 1 • that artels 

.. • .... , ... , i. r. Bumuib COC'pei atlvey were tnr-mprl 

it is to carry on political agitation among lor the benefit r th- unemployed women 

By this means thousands of working wo- 

29.T73 r rk i n ^J!?^ n „.! n ., its .>ank S : uQ^. Z , '""'ration of 

one mpsu Xt^^n^t^'^ 10 ^ the ^t movement"^"^ 1 ^ 1 ^' 1h 'rative 

te number is not veiy considerableTbut SSSSriJ?* 1 ^ 0t \ er 'W ' 
t take into consideration the fact moveS .f^rship, the 

sections consist in directing the activ 
of the working women in the accomplish* 
ment of the practical tasks embodvina 
the aspirations and demands of the work- 
ing class. This method of attract 

the working women, who is in fact the 
organiser of these women. The women 
workers of every workshop have' elections 
of delegates at their general meetings 
two or three times a year. These delegates 
are subsequently convened to delegate' 
meetings by the Women's Section of tte 
Party Executive. There are 70,000 sucii 
delegates throughout Russia. These de- 
legates' meetings are in the nature 
practical and political schools. At new 
meetings reports are presented c- 
litical economic 

men have remained under the influence 
he party. The women's section are 

in the present condil 
economic policy *] 

rcZr^thf 8 ' 

w> come to the assistance of the i 

Son K^ ' 

tion that the activity of the work 

3 6 n C ooo find I ts ™tan.£p ! 

n L i '•??? wor king mothers are oi ; 
msed . within the co-operative socfe 

lhe Mother and Child- which is 
of the network of the Petrograd Co 
mers co-operatives. This co-operative 
society provides the necessaries of life at 
reasonable prices, and proposes 'to 
establish homes for infants. 

Such co-operatives exist also in some 
of the towns and countries of the Pskov 
Province, and also in one of the commu- 
nes. Since the International "Women's Day * 
m 1922, the working women's sections wei e 
given the right to send working weir.-. 
as apprentices to the co-operative sec- 
tions. A certain number of these working 

are pi cocu ^«* - , ,* 
questions, and it is ^'. r 

rarues ana increase ineir participation tnat tne women are encouraged in 

in the class struggle. We may say that first attempts at social activity. J 

thanks to these difficult times, thanks legates are sent on practical wou ^ 

to the struggle against the capitalist rious commissions and org aQ *L are ex 

offensive and for the United Front, the construction. Ail the delegate 

will strengthen and clarify the Communist iiucai economic quesuiuna, a^ -,- 

Parties and increase their participation that the women are encouraged in ■ 

in the class struggle. We may say that first attempts at social activity. J ( , 

:- *- it-.— ^^i^-.-ii. J ..-_ J -^ /lAl. i—j. „«„«„+ «« T,voptin». work in >*. 


'-arryine- on cnmnmnicr ^« n "" v, " l i" ai ? wome n are already in the co-operative 
pio! amo D " III i b? f "I K md S0 T tieS " In ma °y ^^ances the working 
feingwomS artdsX 1 S^f b ^l.?=1^^5 e - e ^r S of th? 

wtinn-T,, P "^inuers ui tnese 

ar Is £ ?° men * S arteis - Del egates of these 
I n? un diV%r rt jn the ^legates mee- 

«?C w he i aUspices of tlie women ' s 
CaLc G ^ e knittiD ^ weaving, 

*^SM d ^ r ssmakin §- artels in aii 

^istence to tl - -^ Wh -° h 0We their 

administrative councils in the workshop 
and village co-operatives. 

Moreover, a considerable number of 

working women are attentiug courses on 

co-operation. We consider our work oa 

the co-operative field as a means 

s sections Tn'Tw'" "Y7u " UAAilJ s of bringing together the urban and th* 

ie situattrT J eW 0f the P resen ! rural workers, and to bring them under 

the Party's sphere of influence. The agi- 
tation and the political propaganda among 
the peasant women is based on their 
interest in agriculture and co-operative 
structure. Therefore, we convene our pea- 

e initiative of the working 
fc °nomlr"cT uI l?- In view of the Present 
""e Chn atlon ' the organisation of 
iiv e movenf T° men withl ' n tne coopera- 
^ of ilT constitutes an important 
'ions. ^l,} vovk carried on by our sec- 
8" to the co-operation of 

■ ' the 


tural colleges 
ection or 
I and even in 
isant women 
in th organisation 
ble number oi 
n are attending courses on 
and child- 
o laics! data, winch is 
. 2.000 peasans wo- 
i the Soviets during 
of them were 
its oi communal Soviets. 
len members on the 
Aceurive Committee of the So- 
mine relief has 
sympathy of great numbers 
■ and rural working women, whom 
; women's sections used in 
ew strata of women wor- 
ld Soviet work. They 
cue of the famine stricken 
most energetic fashion. 
ibuted to our success 
his dreadul calamity. 
red into their families the 
ce famine stricken districts: 
art in the organisation of 
nes in the famine stricken 
s and became mothers to many 
districts. These 
ed with incomparable 
botniki" at which clothes 
made for these 
they were always 

The Con 

l:.! P...., 


till IP, 

■■■ Communist [> llt .u liral ' 

their meagre earnings 
late famine stricken 

> somen's sections do their 

, tho working and peasant 

luto the schools for adults. Pre- 

e organised for them. 

■ 3683 working women at the 

imen's ! acuity (Rabfak), iwA 

- ^e alaos ,, . 
md about 60 'w-i' 

hundreds ol ttorkim. :md ' ll -'Vr , 
correspondents. p ^ asa «i 

Such extensive work among tK, 
masses us only possible under VOi 
arian dictatorship. IhU / , a Pi 
rany has recognised tho im , ; ! ,l,1! 
special methods of political Ll^ 




and agitation anion/tiiTworl-in ,pa ^ ai 
greatly facilitating" th e eTirol^ 

pari in the Octobi r 11 
■toiler Revolution broup 
... into the position of 
lien and opened before them 
ubsequcntly before the 

of great possibilitl 
ent there is not a single field 
loviet construction on which the Rug. 
J, working women do not display their 

these masses into the "ranks"!!? l,° m 
taut proletariat. The first stem m 

work among working women w Z , ^ : ^ ] - 

mad,, in loo.i — loot; Tlu ' ^" ,ial ^d ( ihnnselve.s excellent comrades. 'Ihousand 

ist endeavoured to brino VV^ 

working women under their iJ? m 

But the class instinct of L hl ? Ce 

women o-uided bv t !p \ °!+ e worki ^ P* e tnorougniy awasenea working 

to™L" , h1 P%C011 * women are animated by an entirely 

SLsJinS l: 1 5 e S c °Wt on oflb( ( , 0inmunis t spirit of the aspirations of 

!l m arkable capacities and activity. Neit- 
: p .. to there a front at which the 
Ujjff and peasant women did not prove 
themselves excellent comrades. Thousand 
,'l working women fell in our struggle 
ipkose names have remained unknown to 

The. thoroughly awakened working 

- ~. conception of the . iomnumist spirit, of the aspiratL., . 

-anda ncl o L le th f T mt P ro P»- ^ workin 8 class ' and the ener gy wM <* 

Fotunh?^ they have displayed in communist and 

pit! u ?■ Wli ! the c °mmunisi Soviet construction knows no bounds. 

wr } ' - n, , lt tm y\ tle first Working k The Communist Partv has appreciated 

women sUub was established inPetro^d 1 \ the full these qualities of the working 

which was soon destroyed by tlie police, women and by ingeneous methods it has 

Reaction compelled the working women established within 'the ranks of the wor- 

to continue their struggle illegally. Bat in king class a solid basis for the new order 

1914 our Party renewed its agitation and u society. 

propaganda among the working women Being convinced of the importance of 

m a semi legal way. The Party published this work, I call upon all Communist 

"The Working Women" which served as Parties to pay the greatest attention to 

a rallying ground for the militant women the agitation and propaganda among the 

workers of that period. The, Comrades working women. Their "participation in 

Samolova, Kudella, lelizarova, Manjin- the united proletarian front is indispen- 

skaia, Rosmirovitch, Armand, Krupskaii gble for its success in the final victorious 

and Staal who were emigrees a^tjjjj struggle, 

UtlOllS ujlvu^ul Lii^iso u,^.,!^"- , --•-•-. uvuuuuuiai/ J.iiiei'liatlOIltll ilisUS 

nought, , ;; avs devotod particular attention to the 

The. militants were arrested, ana > oiu -revolutionary movement against 

and semi- 


■ted this 

protected the 

* ( " the large masses of workers 


uon ri 

2j the 

oi C.r 

At the same timi 


ment by the won: 

guishing under the oppi 

icularly i 
op. Asia v 
wing figures 
tion: 3.047.902 male woi 
female workers, out of a 
28,042,395 m 

The working population . 
in 1911 was app< ©5,424 

men and 47, 
population of 320,00 
number then 
6,000,000 women 
The weaving tr 
1,704,193 woi 
2,200,000: the wo 
were 12,000,000 8S against 1 
employed in tb 

In Ej 
of women employed in 
ies and in 
to bacco indusl 

there has 
industries, thei 
women in 


. . faei 
participation oi - minindustri : 1 1 
has resulted in a co pondmgly incr 



fig participation of women in the gener- 
tL .IT 1 mo ™ent, This is shown by 

in ihl ? Japa " lD I9IS and 1S)2 °- 

in 1921 g weavers * strike in China 

Rnmh?i ia ' / fte / the weavers * s^ike at 
wp h»/tf nd * a S Achmedabhad in 1916, 
?«• \? .? ■ Stnke of the Madura Factory 
thi }h??+ ]I i 192 ° ^ 70 ° working women), 
then the strike at the pottery works at 

2S£X ln I922 An AUliidiJ Union of 
in loSf ^5 men ^as organised atBomday 

on,, mi MaDy J more similar instances 
could be quoted. 

At the same time, even in the colonial 
and semi-colonial countries of the East 
which have as yet no big industries, as 
roi instance m Persia and in Turkev 
owing to the economic conditions of the 
post-war period, the women are becoming 
an ever more indispensable factor in Indus 
trial production. In all the Eastern coun- 
tries where a strong national-revolutio- 
nary movement exists, as in Korea, India 
Egypt and even in Turkey, the woman 
takes an active part. 

In almost all these countries there are 
illegal or legal revolutionary women's 
organisations, which are under the infu- 
ence of the national bourgeoisie, although 
they embrace large masses of working 
women and peasant women. The economic 
condition of working women and peasant 
women is very bad in all the countries 

fj h \ Ka T?" They fom a ch ^P labour 

rce for European and Japanese capital- 

and a defenceless object of erploif- 

already organised Comm,, ■ 
a labour movement, a ? ? l8t ^m 
Japan and partly .11 lor ii3 
India the CoiUnVp^, 1 * C & 
special organs for work Zl s *ay\ i 
Where there i s chfe^ Wj$ 
itionary _ movemec inVb^al^ 

masses of working 

should take advantage o?^*. i h 

to get into clnsA^ 

masses, to em an 

fluence of the 

them into the fight again 

lahsrn and lor the proletarian hen ^ ' 

to get into closer ■ conS *<■ inS S"themselves "exclusively to verified 
masses, to emancipate them fr W ^ ■ - as t0 avoid 
fluence of the bourg Po ki? r ° ni t!,' 
them into the fight alaX ^ ft 



* «Hll have to put the matter to the 

1 idon of the Congress. 

deoj^hv: The English Delegation 

M* v ? h J' 

cents to withdraw the demand for the 
,J r But we would draw the attention 
f the Presidium to the necessity of 
01 _j.,-«rr +hp rp.nnrtfirs in tho fnt,,^ ±.. 

isu Lhe development of the women's 
rement m the Eastern countries has 
furnished us with fruitful soil for com- 
munist propaganda and agitation. Then 
experiences of communist propaganda 
activities in the regions of Soviet frans- 
Caucasia and Turkestan may be made use 
of in the other Eastern countries in a 
majority of cases, in as far as Mahom- 
etan women arc concerned. We draw the 
attention of the Communist Parties and 
groups of the Eastern countries, as well 
as of the Communist Parties of England 
France and other colonising countries to 
the extraordinary importance of the work 
among women during this revolutionary 
period, in this work the diverse objective 
conditions in every country are to be 
taken into consideration. Where there are 

under revolutionary 
slogans. J dm 

In the East, where it is { 
the Communist p art i es tn l f H,t 
broaden the popular national Wi epeD 
fight by establishing close r V °i ut N 
the nati onaI liberation movet^ 1 
communist women's grouns T?M 
pait in this struggle and a tf, 

other women's o^nisaSons^;; 
educational associations as i> 
suffragist) should make this 
their activity and train 'cafe 
lectual revolutionary women 

The United Front against 'impe 
J****? United Prontlfthewfi 
be realised only by C,,, ;iitl , l( . ij(! , 
largest masses of women. J 

(Prolonged Chei re , 
Chairman N'eurath: Comrad 
I wish to draw your attention 
fact that the Presidium went a long^i 
to men ij| ( . wish, oi 
resolving to d< vote a whole daj 
discussion of this question. The Pre 
cannot go beyond that. Von must tjj] 
into consideration that we hi 
had time to dispose of the business 
in hand. I take it that you do ij 
intend to stay in Moscow to the end 
the year. But if we go on at this lg 
I see no possibility of coming to an eo 
any sooner. On these grounds the ,l " 
sidium has resolved thai sufficient 
fcude was given the women by aUo«|] 
them four reporters, but any few 
discussion should be barred. WeJjffl 
jlist received a request from an fcngj 
woman comrade desiring to *ft\ 
I asked her to withdraw, but she wm 
I will, therefore, ask the English ig, 
gaticn again, or rather Comrade i 
whether she will withdraw, as "U)< 

■n'qtructiDg the reporters in the future to 
'.nnfine themselves exclusively to verified 
Hs so as to avoid unnecessary debate 
Chair maI} Neurath: I wish to point 
nut that we would naturally be quite 
willing to allow our woman comrade to 
peak. But 

it is quite 
would be 

further reply ... __ Wi> auu 

ffe would have to allow some more women 

obvious that a 
called for, and 

comrades to speak 

We now come 
resolution which 

to the vote 
I am going to 

on the 
read to 


The Fourth "World Congress of the Com- 
munist International expresses its approv- 
al of the activity of the International 
Communist Women's Secretariat in Ber- 
lin, as an auxiliary organ of the Execut- 
ive during the period covered by the 
report. The International Communist 
Women's Secretariat has concentrated 
its activity on bringing the women com- 
munists as members into the sections of 
the Communist International in all the 
countries with a revolutionary movement, 
and to train them for Party work and 
struggles. It has also contributed a great 
deal towards spreading the communist 
propaganda and organisation work among 
'he widest possible female masses, in 
draw them into the movement 
and struggle for the interests of the 
workiijn- class and for communism. 
, "ne International Communist Women's 
Secretariat has made it its business to 
'"late the work of the organised 
pnmunist women on an 
cale > viz., to establish connection be 
; ,,( ''i their work and that of the Com- 
Pnist Parties and of the Communist 
F er national, In the International Women's 
u wetariat We have succeeded iu conjunct- 
gjj With the Communist Parties of the 
' H "is countries, in extending and consol- 
ing the international relations be- 
ivii) 1 ' 1 ' C0111 inunist women organised 
l 1;] ; illn these Parties. Its entire activity 
ftkh ''''n 1 carrie d on in complete harmony 
we Executive and under the 

SSdI2S? + 0f , tIle , latter according to the 
£§T, - d techni ^l directives and 

Kl^T ? e World Congress oi the 

;°? minst International and oi the Sec- 
ond International Communist Women's 
Lonterence m Moscow 
The special bodies (Women's Secretar- 

n InlT 6115 Sect j on s ; etc.) established 
?Pr?S danc ? I lth these directives and 
decisions, and -the special methods applied 

w T 111 ? 1 Part y work amon K women, 
have not only proved useful, but indis- 
pensable for the task of permeating the 
masses of working women with communist 
ideas and watchwords. 

In the countries with a bourgeois class 
regime, the chief task of systematic com- 
munist activity among the female prole- 
tariat, the women in industry, consists 
in the struggle for the defence of the 
most pressing needs of life against the 
exploiting capitalists, in the struggle for 
the overt-hrow of the bourgeoisie and for the 
establish ment of proletarian dictatorship. On 
the other hand, in the Soviet States, the chief 
task of the Women's Secretariat consisted 
in drawing the working and peasant women 
into active participation on all the fields 
of the economic and social life of their 
respective countries, and in training 
them for the constructive work of the 
proletarian State and the tasks which 
the latter has to fulfil. The Internatio- 
nal significance of Soviet Russia as the 
first workers' State produced by the 
world revolution, gives a special meaning 
to the Communist activity of the wor- 
king w 7 omen of these countries, as it 
serves as an example to all the sections 
of the Communist International in the 
countries where the proletariat has not 
yet aquired power, the indispensable 
pre — requisite for the reconstruction of 
tie organised, society on a communist basis. That it is 
international indispenable to have special organisations 
mcction be- for the conducting of Communist work 
among w v omen, has also been shown by 
the activity of the Women's Secretariat 
tor the East, which has done valuable 
and successful work on a perfectly new 
and rather difficult field. 

The Fourth World Congress oi i he Com- 
munist International is, however, compel 1 "' 
to admit that some sections have either 
carried out their tasks at all, or h. 
done so in a very unsatisfactory mam 
Up to the present they have either u 


the try measures for the 

women communists 
the party, or to establish party 
despi usable for work- 
'eping in contact with the 
Fourth ' ins these 

3 witi] the least possible delay to 
■ their failure to comply with 
. fress. At the 
e time, it reminds all sections of the 
International to concentrate 
ion on work among women 
it importance of wo- 
fcion for the movement as 
ted front 
ly be realised if the woman 
a rational and energetic part in it in 
equality with men. Given a pro- 
vince between the com- 
munist parties and the working women: 
1 latter can become under certain cir- 
cumstances the pioneers of the proletarian 
united front and of the revolutionary 
mass mov< merits. 

The Communist International must 
unite, without any differentiation, all the 
forces of the proletariat and of the work- 
ing masses for a class conscious revolu- 
ry struggle for the establishment of 
Communism and for the overthrow of 
the bourgeois class regime. 

Does anyboby wish to speak to 
olution? 3STo one. We will now t i r? s- 
vote. Carried unanimously. (Cheer? % 

I wish to . announce the receL 
resolution submitted by several r " ; 
women comrades. Tt will have to 1 c ' ! 
Presidium *«- ~ 


milted to the 
There being no 

To-night the 
will meet: 

At 5.30 p.m.- 

At 5.30 p.m. 


At 9 

At 6 


«us will \ :: 


(The session adjourned at L20 p.m.) 

Published L»y the Press Bureau of the Fourth Congress ot tho Comintern. Moscow, ^ — , 

, " . . — T'jT 1$ 

eminent Printory „The Rod Proletarian.'- Number of copies printed: 



G ommi saio ^ 

The American C\ )lm% 

- The Educational Co*,. 

7 p.m.-The Small Commission J 

p.m.— The Small French ComaJ 

p.m.-The Presidium meets ami 
to-morrow al 12 the Session of the I 
isation Comm 

The ■ ion will be opened at n 

a.m. I w, when we will dismiss the 

educational q '\ he reporter wj| 

be Comrade Hornle of Germany. 

The Presidium a1 its meeting 
ternon will decide as to the 


December 5th, 1922. 

Twenty Fith Session. 

ill is al'. 

November 28th, 1922. 
C h a irme n: Comrades Neurath, Zetkin, Markhlevski. ' 


Ropor on Education. Report on the Versailles Treaty. Appearance of Comrade Gennari. 

Telegram to the All-Indian Tade Union Congress. 

Speakers: Hornley, Krupskaya, Cachin, Gennari, Smeral, Raditeh, 

Session was opened at 12:33 p.m. 

Chair in a n-'N e u r a t h : I d eclare the 

m open. Before proceeding with our 

ss, 1 should like to draw your 

: ;tf ration to the following: It has come 

my notice thai sevi ral comrades have 

jenwed books ['rem the lunik exhibition 

without asking leave. These comrades are 

ted to return the books, and to 

'■ in ruture the rule that no bonks 

1,1 taken from the exhibition room. 

The next item on the agenda is the 

Education Question. I call on 

ide Hornle ((lermanv) to present 

W report. ' ' 

Hornle (Ge rnuui y). Comrades, the 

wucation Commission arrived at the 

Famous conclusion that the question 

1 "' Congress should not be the 

Ef scheme of the Communist education 

;: ll - l,llt ;."nly the question of comma- 

Rational work done by the Party 

"amey the question of the political 

Esnr n , ,n,Mlll,(V i , s wd functiona- 

| ttc i V art y« ;,ml of the political 

in,.,,, ! m ^'hieh is carried on by the 

no D a t ,, ancl functionaries of the Party 

T|)f ? (l masses outside the Party. 

wurffeoj* , nist P° lic y differs from the 
^ and reformist policy not only 
i si,- i, U also }, y th|V fact that it 
UU:L 'y scientific basis that it rests 

on a careful analysis of the historic situ- 
ation and on a thorough knowledge of 
the social forces which are at work within 
the capitalist system. Its methods are the 
methods of Marxist research and of his- 
toric materialism. Thus, the Communist 
International can only fulfil its task 
as leader of the revolutionary proletariat 
and as the defender of the masses of the 
oppressed and exploited if it puts its 
policies on a strictly Marxist basis. For 
this reason, it is essential 'that the com- 
munist parties should give their members 
and functionaries a careful theoretical 

Another reason for the need for polit- 
ical educational work of the communist 
party is the fact, that all the communist 
parties are young parties, not only in 
that the parties have been only a few 
years in existence, but also in that the 
age, or at least the political age, of the 
majority of their members. The majority 
of the communist party members are still 
suffering from the after effects and sur- 
vivals of the old petty bourgeois and 
reformist orientation and ideol >gy. The 
environment of our struggle today, 
especially at the present moment, sets 
before these young, and in some eases 
rapidly growing parties, new tasks oi an 
increasingly difficult nature. The tad